Unfortunately, the difficulty you've encountered is related directly to peculiarities of Mac OS Calendar. When single instances of the recurrent event are edited in Calendar, the changes (excluded dates, for example) are synced from Mac to others Macs only. On other devices, as well as Google account, changes will not be applied after the sync. However, this issue occurs only when editing single events in the chain of recurrent events. Global recurrent event changes, like editing the "repeat until" date, are synced without problems.
Sorry for possible inconveniences, but it is technically impossible for us to avoid such behavior.